Timothy Randhir                                 

Professor (Full) of Watershed Management, Water Resources, Water Quality, Ecohydrology, Complex Systems, Ecological Economics, and Sustainability.

Email: randhir

Phone: 413-545-3969

Office: 326 Holdsworth

Professional Websites: ResearchGate, Google Scholar, ORCID, Academia.edu, Publons

Twitter: Follow @timrandhir

Ecowater, LinkedIn

Curriculum Vitae

Primary Interests

Dr. Randhir’s primary interests include water and watershed sciences, sustainability sciences, environmental sciences, ecological economics, landscape ecology, climate change, ecohydrology, computational modeling, management decision sciences, and complex systems.


Dr. Randhir received a Ph.D. from Purdue University in 1995 and did post-doctoral work at Purdue University before joining the University of Massachusetts as a faculty. He has a bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Sciences from Annamalai University and a master’s degree in Agricultural Economics from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Dr, Randhir is a consultant to the National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, American Association of Advancement of Sciences, US Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, and US Department of Agriculture.

In addition, he serves as Editor of three international journals in earth systems, climate change, ecological economics, and computational environmental sciences. His publications include a book on Watershed Management, several book chapters, more than 105 refereed articles in top international journals, and several professional conference presentations. His research extends worldwide, including Honduras, Columbia, Peru, Uruguay, Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, El Salvador, eSwatini, Cote d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Mongolia, Kirghizstan, Uganda, Turkey, Iran, Russia, China, India, and Indonesia. He is the President of the Southern New England Chapter of Soil and Water Conservation Society.

Current / Recent Projects

Effects of Climate and Land Use Changes on Water Quantity and Quality of Watersheds
Spatial and temporal Uncertainty in climatic impacts on watershed systems
SWAT-SF: A flexible SWAT-based model for watershed-scale water and soil salinity modeling
Information for Climate Adaptation and Restoration of Ecosystem Services (I-CARES)
Sustainable Agricultural Production System through Convergence Research Using a Multi-Scale Ecosystems Approach
Forecasting Urban Water using Bayesian Networks and Gene Expression Programming
Measuring the quality of patents among Latin-American universities
Participatory Water-Food-Energy Nexus Approach for Evaluation and Design of Groundwater Governance
Spatial and temporal management of forest cover and urban impacts for water resources sustainability.
Best Management Practices to Minimize the Environmental Impact of Two Equine Operations

Courses Taught

NRC 578 – Watershed Science and Management
NRC 576 – Water Resources Management and Policy
NRC 577 – Ecosystem Modeling and Simulation
ECO 675 – Ecological Economics and Sustainability
ECO 678 – Advanced Watershed Science
NRC 578 – Watershed Management – Online
HONORS 391 – Blue Gold and World Water Wars
FYS 191 – Water Resources Sustainability

Selected Recent Publications


Randhir, T.O. 2006. Watershed Management: Issues and Approaches. International Water Association Publishing, London, UK.


De Mello*‡, K.D., R.H. Taniwaki, D.R. Macedo, C.G. Leal, T.O. Randhir. 2023. Biomonitoring for watershed protection from a multiscale land-use perspective. Diversity 15(5): 636. https://doi.org/10.3390/d15050636

Omer, R.B., H.M. Hewait, E. Mady, S.K.M. Yousif, E.A. Gashash, R. Randhir, A.E. Ashmawi, A.M. El-Taher, N.A. Al-Harbi, T.O. Randhir. 2023. Chemical, Anatomical, and Productivity Responses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) to Integrated Biofertilizer Applications with PGPR, Cyanobacteria, and Yeast, Sustainability 15(9): 7599. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097599

El-Beltagi, H.S., R.S. Nada, E. Mady, A.E. Ashmawi, E.A. Gashash, A.A. Elateeq, A.A. Suliman, N.A. Al-Harbi, S. M. Al-Qahtani, M.M. Zarad, T.O. Randhir. 2023. Effect of Organic and Bio-Fertilization on Fruit Yield, Bioactive Constituents, and Estragole Content in Fennel Fruits. Agronomy. 13(5):1189-1209. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051189

Talib, A., T.O. Randhir. 2023. Long-term effects of Land-use Change on Water Resources in Urbanizing Watersheds. PLOS Water. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pwat.0000083

Sorkhabi, O.M., J. Asgari., T.O. Randhir. 2023. Monitoring Groundwater Storage based on Satellite Gravimetry and Deep Learning. Natural Resources Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11053-023-10185-5

Alnefaie, R.M., S.A. EL-Sayed, A.A. Ramadan, A.I. Elmezien, A.M. El-Taher, T.O. Randhir, and A. Bondok. 2023. Physiological and Anatomical Responses of Faba Bean Plants Infected with Chocolate Spot Disease to Chemical Inducers. Life 13, no. 2 (Jan. 31): 392. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life13020392.

Ahmed M. El-Taher, A.M., H. A. Elzilal, H. S. Abd El-Raouf, E. Mady, K. S. Alshallash, R. M. Alnefaie, E.M. Mahdy, O.G. Ragab, E.A. Emam, I.A. Alaraidh, T.O. Randhir, M.F.M. Ibrahim. 2023. Characterization of some Cichorium taxa grown under Mediterranean climate using morphological traits and molecular markers, Plants. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12020388

Hatamkhani, A., A. Moridi, T.O. Randhir, 2023. Sustainable planning of multipurpose hydropower reservoirs with environmental impacts in a simulation–optimization framework. Hydrology Research. nh2022084. https://doi.org/10.2166/nh.2022.084

Ahmad*‡, T.M., M.S. Haider, T.O. Randhir, S.R. Ahmad. 2023. Spatial Analysis of Factors influencing Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice Production. Brazilian Journal of Biology. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.264249

Maleki, M.S., M.E. Banihabib, and T.O. Randhir. 2022. An integrated framework for simultaneously modeling primary and secondary salinity at a watershed scale. Journal of Hydrology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.128171

Moghaddam, H.K., S. Javadi, T.O. Randhir, and N. Kavehkar. 2022. A Multi‑Indicator, Non‑Cooperative Game Model to Resolve Conflicts for Aquifer Restoration. Water Resources Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-022-03310-1

Mozaffari, S., S. Javadi, H.K. Moghaddam, and T.O. Randhir. 2022. Development of the SVR-PSO Simulation-Optimization Model for the Assessment of a Novel Groundwater Quality Index. Water and Environment Journal. https://doi.org/10.1111/wej.12801

Mozaffari S., S. Javadi, H.K. Moghaddam, and T.O. Randhir. 2022. Forecasting groundwater levels using a hybrid of support vector regression and particle swarm optimization. Water Resources Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-022-03118-z

Mello*‡, K. D., R.A. Valente, M.P. Ribeiro, and T.O. Randhir, 2022. Effects of forest cover pattern on water quality of low-order streams in an agricultural landscape in the Pirapora river basin. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-022-09854-4

Mady E., S.D. Ibrahim, R. Randhir, A.F. Abd El-Hakim, T.O. Randhir. 2022. Genetic variation among pumpkin landraces based on seed qualities and molecular markers. Molecular Biology Reports. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07233-3

Malmir, M., S. Javadi, A. Moridi, T.O Randhir, M. Saatsaz, 2022. Integrated groundwater management using a comprehensive conceptual framework, Journal of Hydrology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.127363

Banihabib, M.E., P. Mousavi-Mirkalaei, A. Roozbahani, and T.O. Randhir. 2022. Forecasting Urban Water using Bayesian Networks and Gene Expression Programming. Earth Science Informatics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12145-021-00733-z

Baker, J., T.O. Randhir. 2022. Climate change impacts on nitrogen and phosphorus loading in New England watersheds. Journal of Nature and Spatial Sciences (JONASS). 2(1):1-14. https://doi.org/10.30495/JONASS.2022.1946924.1020

Mendez-Morales, A., R. Ochoa-Urrego, and T.O. Randhir. 2021. Measuring the quality of patents among Latin-American universities, Accepted Studies in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2021.2020749

Ross, E., and T.O. Randhir. 2021. Effects of Climate and Land Use Changes on Water Quantity and Quality of Coastal Watersheds of Narragansett Bay. Science of the Total Environment. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151082

Maleki, M.S., M.E. Banihabib, T.O. Randhir. 2021. SWAT-SF: A flexible SWAT-based model for watershed-scale water and soil salinity modeling. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2021.103893

Jamali, A.A., R.G. Kalhajeh, T.O. Randhir, and S. He. 2021. Modeling relationship between land surface temperature anomaly and environmental factors using Google Earth Engine and Giovanni. Journal of Environmental Management. 302, 113970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113970

Mirzaie, N., M.E. Banihabib, S.M.H. Shahdany, and T.O. Randhir. 2021. Fuzzy particle swarm optimization for conjunctive use of groundwater and reclaimed wastewater under uncertainty.  Agricultural Water Management. 256(1): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.107116

Norvanchig, J. and T.O. Randhir. 2021. Simulation of Ecohydrological processes influencing water supplies in the Tuul River Watershed of Mongolia. Journal of Hydroinformatics. https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2021.056

Helaly, A.A., E. Mady, E. A. Salem, and T.O. Randhir. 2021. Stimulatory Effects of Growth-Promoting Bacteria on Growth, Nutritional Composition, and Yield of Kale Plants. (Accepted) Journal of Plant Nutrition

Ghafoori-Kharanagh, S., M.E. Banihabib, S. Javadi, and T.O. Randhir. 2021. Participatory Water-Food-Energy Nexus Approach for Evaluation and Design of Groundwater Governance. Water Resources Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-021-02894-4

Zhang, C., D. Tan, N. Yua, X. Yina, and T.O. Randhir. 2021. Value creation mechanism through carbon assets for the sustainability of the automobile sector. Sustainable Development. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2216

Moghaddam, H.K., M. E. Banihabib, S. Javadi, and T.O. Randhir. 2021. A Framework for the Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Sustainable Development of Groundwater system. Sustainable Development. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2205

Mohammadi, A., M. Banihabib, H. Yousefi, H. Pouraram, T.O. Randhir, (2021). Critique and review of desirable and present food baskets of Iranian society using the water and food nexus approach. Iranian Journal of Ecohydrology, 8(2), 599-609. https://doi.org/10.22059/ije.2021.325479.1517

Vargas-de la Mora, A. M.A. Castillo-Santiago, T.O. Randhir, M.C. Hernández-Moreno, M.J. Cach-Pérez, and V. Camacho-Valdéz. Know to Improve: Factors that influence the transition towards silvopastoral systems in the Chiapas coast. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 24(3):1-16.  https://www.revista.ccba.uady.mx/ojs/index.php/TSA/article/view/3689/1679.

Jamali, A.A., R. Tabatabaee, T.O. Randhir. 2021. Ecotourism and socioeconomic strategies for Khansar River watershed of Iran. Environment Development and Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01334-y

Paulding, C., T.O. Randhir. 2021. An Ecohydrological Assessment of Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Herpetofauna, Sustainability, and Climate Change. 14(1):22-34 https://doi.org/10.1089/scc.2020.0027

Sun, X., W. Liu, S. Li, P. Chen, M. Cao, T.O. Randhir, and Y. Zhang. 2020. Species richness patterns of waterbirds overwintering on the Jiangsu coast for coastal reclamation. Ocean & Coastal Management, p.105488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105488

Yurtseven, I., Randhir, T.O. 2020. Multivariate assessment of spatial and temporal variations in irrigation water quality in Lake Uluabat watershed of Turkey. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 192, 793. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08723-2 

Maleki, M.S., M.E. Banihabib, T.O. Randhir. 2020. SWAT-S: A SWAT-salinity module for watershed-scale modeling of natural salinity. Environmental Modelling and Software. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2020.104906

Zhang, C., N. Yua, X. Yina, T.O. Randhir. 2020. Environmental performance evaluation of enterprises using internal resource loss and external environmental damage costs, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2020.1802238

Dowlatabadi, N.K., M.E. Banihabib, A. Roozbahani, T.O. Randhir. 2020. Enhanced GMCR model for resolving conflicts in a transboundary wetland, Science of the Total Environment, 744.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140816

Mello, K.D., R.H. Taniwaki, F. R. D. Paula, R.A. Valente, T.O. Randhir, D.R. Macedo, C.G. Lea, C.B. Rodrigues, R.M. Hughes. 2020. Multiscale land use impacts on water quality: assessment, planning, and future perspectives in Brazil, Journal of Environmental Management. 270, p.110879. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110879

Xie, B., M. Liu, T.O. Randhir, Y. Yi, X. Hu. 2020. Is the Biological Assets Measured by Historical Cost Value-related? Custos E Agronegócio. 16(1):122-150 http://www.custoseagronegocioonline.com.br/numero1v16/OK%206%20assets.pdf

Mamba, H.S., Randhir, T.O., and Fuller, T.K., 2020. Community attitudes and perceptions concerning rhinoceros poaching and conservation: a case study in eSwatini. African Journal of Wildlife Research, 50(1), pp.1-7. http://doi.org/10.3957/056.050.0001

Banihabib, M.E., N. Chitsaz, and T.O. Randhir. 2020. Non-compensatory Decision Model for Incorporating the Sustainable Development Criteria in Flood Risk Management Plans. SN Applied Sciences, 2, 6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1695-6.

Zhang, C., K. Song, H. Wang, and T.O. Randhir. 2019. Carbon budget management in the civil aviation industry using an interactive control perspective, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2019.1679923

Sun, X, Y. Zhang, Y. Shen, T.O. Randhir, and M. Cao. 2019. Exploring ecosystem services and scenario simulation in the headwaters of Qiantang River Watershed of China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 26(34):34905-34923 https://DOI:10.1007/s11356-019-06483-2

Randhir, T.O., J.H. Axelson. 2019. Water use and conservation preferences among households in an urbanizing gradient. Water Conservation Science and Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41101-019-00074-5

Tsvetkova, O., T.O. Randhir. 2019. Spatial and temporal uncertainty in climatic impacts on watershed systems, Science of The Total Environment, 687: 618-633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.141 

Mello, K. D., R. A. Valente, T.O. Randhir, C.A. Vettorazzi. 2018. Impacts of tropical forest cover on water quality in agricultural watersheds in southeastern Brazil. Ecological Indicators. 93: 1293-1301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.06.030

Mello, K. D., R. A. Valente, T. O. Randhir, A.C.A.D. Santos, C.A. Vettorazzi. 2018. Effects of land use and land cover on water quality of low-order streams in Southeastern Brazil: Watershed versus riparian zone, CATENA,167:130–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2018.04.027

Quinonez, A.L.C., T. K. Fuller., T.O. Randhir. 2018. A review of otter distribution modeling: Approach, scale, and metrics. IUCN Otter Species Group Bulletin. 35(2): 97-127. http://www.otterspecialistgroup.org/Bulletin/Volume35/Quinonez_et_al_2018.html

Randhir, T.O., P. Mozumder, and N. Halim. 2018. Decision-making under Surprise and Uncertainty: Arsenic Contamination of Water Supplies. Journal of Hydrologyhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.03.030

Zhang, C., T.O. Randhir, and Y. Zhang. 2018. Theory and practice of enterprise carbon assets management from the perspective of Low Carbon Transformation. Carbon Management. https://doi.org/10.1080/17583004.2018.1426329

Jamali, A.A., T. O. Randhir, and J. Nosrati. 2018. Water resources planning for subsurface dam sites using Boolean and fuzzy logic in arid watersheds. ASCE’s Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. https://ascelibrary.org/doi/full/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000947

Rajaiei, F., A.E. Sari, A. Salmanmahiny, T. O. Randhir, M. Delavar, R.D. Behrooz, A. M. Bavani. 2018. Simulating long-term effect of Hyrcanian forest loss on phosphorus loading at the sub-watershed level. Journal of Arid Land. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-018-0012-3

Jamali, A.A., S. Zarekia, and T.O. Randhir. 2018. Risk assessment of sand dune disaster in relation to geomorphic properties and vulnerability in the Suduq-Yazd Erg. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 16(1): 579-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1601_579590

Mello, K. D., and T.O. Randhir. 2017. Diagnosis of water crises in the metropolitan area of São Pau-lo: Policy opportunities for sustainability, Urban Water Journal. 15(1):53-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2017.1395895

Mello, K.D., T. O. Randhir, R. A. Valente, and C. A. Vettorazzi. 2017. Riparian restoration for protecting water quality in tropical agricultural watersheds, Ecological Engineering https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.06.049.

Randhir, T.O., E. Wright, and J. Ahern. 2017. Modeling Suburban Phosphorus Runoff and B.M.P.s: Downscaling from watershed systems to site-specific scales, ASCE’s of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, 3(4): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1061/JSWBAY.0000829

Talib, A., and T.O. Randhir. 2017. Climate change and land-use impacts on hydrologic processes of watershed systems, of Water and Climate Change. 8(3): 363-374.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2017.064    

Han, L. T.O. Randhir, M. Huang. 2017. Design and assessment of stream–wetland systems for nutrient removal in an urban watershed of China, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 228:139. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3312-x

Pamukcu, P., N. Erdem, Y. Serengil and T.O. Randhir. 2016. Ecohydrologic modelling of water resources and land use for watershed conservation, Ecological Informatics, 36: 31-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2016.09.005

Dudula, J. and T. O. Randhir. 2016. Modeling the influence of Climate Change on Watershed Systems: Adaptation through Targeted Practices. Journal of Hydrology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.020

Talib, A., and T.O. Randhir. 2016. Managing Emerging Contaminants in Watersheds: Need for Comprehensive, Systems-Based Strategies, Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.swaqe.2016.05.002

Randhir, T.O. 2016. Globalization impacts on local commons: multiscale strategies for socioeconomic and ecological resilience. Journal of Commons. 10(1). https://doi.org/10.18352/ijc.517 

Talib, A. and T.O. Randhir. 2016. Managing emerging contaminants: Status, impacts, and watershed-wide strategies. Exposure and Health. 8(1), 143-158.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-015-0192-4.

Ekness, P. and T.O. Randhir. 2015. Effect of climate and land cover changes on watershed runoff: A multivariate assessment for stormwater management, of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 120(9):1785-1796. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JG002981

Mozumder, P., T.O. Randhir, W.F. Vásquez, M. Jerath. 2015. Risk Perceptions and Adaptation to Climate Variability: Survey Evidence from Maple Syrup Farmers, Jl. of Ecological Economics and Statistics 36(4):1-17. http://ceser.in/ceserp/index.php/ijees/article/view/3960

Pusparini, W., P.R. Sievert, T.K. Fuller, T. O. Randhir, and N. Andayani. 2015. Rhinos in the Parks: An Island-Wide Survey of the Last Wild Population of the Sumatran Rhinoceros, PLoS O.N.E. 10(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136643.

Naing, H., T.K. Fuller, P.R. Sievert, T.O. Randhir, A.J. Lynam, S.H.T. Po, M. Maung, A.J. Lynam, S. Htun, W. N. Thaw, and T. Myint. Assessing large mammal and bird richness from camera-trap records in the Hukaung Valley of Northern Myanmar, Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 63: 376-388. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:89DE5E17­293E­42A6­9245­579D86B291DB

Zhang, C., and T.O. Randhir. 2015. Comparative analysis of accounting principles in trading carbon emissions for alternative mechanism design, of Env. Accounting and Management, 3(1): 1-11. https://doi.org/10.5890/JEAM.2015.03.004

Randhir, T.O. and S. Raposah. 2014. Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of alternative landscape states, Journal of Hydrology. 519: 1526-1536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.08.051

Sekar, I. and T.O. Randhir. 2014. Spatial Risk Assessment of Farming on Wetland Habitats in Watershed System. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-014-2116-5

Randhir, T.O. 2014. Resilience of watershed systems to climate change. of Earth Science and Climatic Change, 5:6. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7617.1000e109

Oluka, S., A. L. Steigen, T.O. Randhir. 2014. Managing coliform contamination and chlorine by-products in urban water supply system in Uganda, Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.swaqe.2014.04.001.

Randhir, T.O. and P. Ekness, 2013. Water quality change and habitat potential in riparian ecosystems. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology, https://doi.org/1016/j.ecohyd.2013.09.001

Erol, A. and T.O. Randhir. 2013. Watershed ecosystem modeling of land-use impacts on water quality, Ecological Modeling. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.09.005.

Randhir, T.O., and A. Erol. 2013. Emerging Threats to Forests: Resilience and Strategies at System Scale,” American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4(3A):739-748. https://doi.org/4236/ajps.2013.43A093

Other Articles (1996-2012):

Book Chapters

Randhir, T.O., and A.G. Hawes. 2010. Ecology and Poverty in Watershed Management. Invited chapter, DeClerck, F., J.C. Ingram, and C.R. Del Rio. Integrating Ecology into Poverty Alleviation and International Development Efforts: a practical guide. Springer Verlag Publication.

Randhir, T.O., P. Ekness, and O. Tsvetkova. 2010. Climatic change impacts on hydrologic dynamics of watershed systems. In Jeremy C. Vaughn. Watershed: Management, Restoration, and Environmental Impact. Nova Science Publishers, USA.

Randhir, T.O. 2003. Land Use Planning. In: Water: Science and Issues, ed. E. Julius Dasch. New York: Macmillan Reference USA. Pages: 7-11.

Randhir, T.O. 2003. Global Warming: Policy Making. In: Water: Science and Issues, ed. E. Julius Dasch. New York: Macmillan Reference USA. pages: 134-137.

Randhir, T.O., and S. R. Subramanian. 1999. Hill Agriculture Development: Environmental Issues. In: Kainth, G.S. Developing Hill Agriculture. (Ed.). Vedams Press., Delhi, India.

Conference Abstracts