Ecology and conservation of the Eastern spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus h. holbrookii) at Cape Cod National Seashore
Graduate research assistant, UMASS-Amherst
Robert and Patricia Switzer Environmental Fellowship 2008
U.S. National Park Service
UMASS Graduate School Fellowship
Dr. Kevin McGarigal
The Eastern spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus h. holbrookii) is a regionally-threatened species that is locally common at Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO), representing what is likely the largest population in the northeastern United States. Although it is known that CACO supports a significant population of this species, information on which wetlands are used for breeding, habitat parameters associated with these breeding wetlands and their geographic distribution is limited. Additionally, recent survey and research efforts have identified considerable road-mortality events of Eastern spadefoot toads throughout CACO (primarily on warm, rainy nights during spring and summer months) and the impact of this mortality is unknown.
My research focuses on gaining an improved understanding of the distribution of breeding wetlands and breeding habitat preferences of Eastern spadefoot toads at CACO. Additionally, using radio-telemetry I will examine post-breeding movement patterns and upland habitat use/preferences of adults. Results from analyses on these (and other) research objectives will allow for an improved understanding of the ecology of Eastern spadefoot toads at CACO which will prove critical to more accurately assess potential impacts of landscape change, road mortality, and global climate change on the long-term persistence of this species at CACO. Results from this research will also provide managers at CACO with the information necessary to employ effective management strategies (e.g., temporary road-closures, active habitat management) aimed at the long-term conservation of Eastern spadefoot toads at CACO, if deemed necessary at some point in the future.
Ryan, K.J., A.J.K. Calhoun, B.C. Timm, and J.D. Zydlewski. In Review. Monitoring eastern spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrookii) activity using a passive integrated transponder (PIT) system and the effects of selected meteorological variables on burrow emergence. Journal of Herpetology.
Timm, B.C., and K. McGarigal. In Review. Fowler’s toad (Anaxyrus fowleri) activity patterns on a roadway at Cape Cod National Seashore. Journal of Herpetology.
Timm, B.C., and K. McGarigal. In Review. A preliminary assessment of the ground-dwelling arthropod community composition in six common dune cover types at Cape Cod National Seashore. Northeastern Naturalist.
Timm, B.C., K. McGarigal, and R.P. Cook. In Review. Upland movement patterns and habitat selection of adult eastern spadefoots (Scaphiopus holbrooki) at Cape Cod National Seashore. Journal of Herpetology.
Timm, B.C., S.M. Smith, and S.E. Greenspan. In Press. Remotely-sensed mapping of Ammophila distribution and density at Cape Cod National Seashore. Journal of Coastal Research.
Timm, B.C., and K. McGarigal. 2012. Scaphiopus holbrookii possible transmitter expulsion. Herpetological Review 43:???.
Buchanan, S.W., B.C. Timm, R.P. Cook, and R. Couse. 2012. Heterodon platirhinos (eastern hog-nosed snake) hibernacula site fidelity. Herpetological Review 43:493-494.
Timm, B.C., and K. McGarigal. 2012. Fine-scale remotely-sensed cover mapping of coastal dune and salt marsh ecosystems at Cape Cod National Seashore using Random Forests. Remote Sensing of Environment 127:106-117.
Cook, R.P., T.A. Tupper, P.W.C. Paton , and B.C. Timm. 2011. Effects of temperature and temporal factors on anuran detection probabilities at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts, USA: Implications for long-term monitoring. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6:97-112.
Tupper, T.A., J.W. Streicher, S. Greenspan, B.C. Timm, and R.P. Cook. 2011. Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in anurans of Cape Cod National Seashore, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, USA. Herpetological Review 42:62-65.
Way, J.G., and B.C. Timm. 2011. Record pack-density of eastern coyotes/coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon). American Midland Naturalist 165:201-203.
Timm, B.C., K. McGarigal, and R.P. Cook. 2010. Scaphiopus h. holbrookii predation. Herpetological Review 41:207.
Timm, B.C., and K. McGarigal. 2010. The diets of subadult Fowler’s toads (Bufo fowleri) and Eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus h. holbrookii) at Cape Cod National Seashore, USA. Herpetological Review 41:154-156.
Way, J.G., and B.C. Timm. 2010. Nomadic behavior of an old and formerly territorial Eastern coyote, (Canis latrans). Canadian Field Naturalist 122:316-322.
Way, J.G., B.C. Timm, and E.G. Strauss. 2009. Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon) pack density doubles following the death of a resident territorial male. Canadian Field Naturalist 123:199-205.
Gamble, L.R., K. McGarigal, D. Sigourney, and B.C. Timm. 2009. Survival and breeding frequency in marbled salamanders: implications for spatio-temporal population dynamics. Copeia 2009:394-407.
Tupper, T.A., L.B. Adams, and B.C. Timm. 2009. Bufo fowleri diet. Herpetological Review 40:200-201.
Timm, B.C. 2008. Book Review: Science and conservation of vernal pools in northeastern North America. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1879-1880.
Timm, B.C., K. McGarigal, and B.W. Compton. 2007. Timing of large movements of pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts, USA. Biological Conservation 136:442-454.
Timm, B.C., K. McGarigal, and L. R. Gamble. 2007. Emigration timing of juvenile pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts. Journal of Herpetology 41: 243-250.
Timm, B.C., K. McGarigal, and C.L. Jenkins. 2007. Emigration orientation of juvenile pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts. Copeia 2007:685-698.
Tupper, T., R.P. Cook, B.C. Timm, and A. Goodstine. 2007. Improving calling surveys for detecting Fowler’s toad, Bufo fowleri, in southern New England, USA. Applied Herpetology 4:245-259.
Gamble, L.R., K. McGarigal, C.L. Jenkins, and B.C. Timm. 2006. Limitations of regulated “buffer zones” for the conservation of marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum. Wetlands 26:298-306.
Jenkins, C.L., K. McGarigal, and B.C. Timm. 2006. Orientation of movements and habitat selection in a spatially-structured population of marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum). Journal of Herpetology 40:240-248.
Last updated February 11, 2013 by Roxann Cormier