Dr. McGarigal’s overall professional goal, achieved through research, teaching, and outreach, is to improve our understanding of how landscapes are structured physically and biologically and the agents responsible for those patterns, how these patterns affect the distribution and dynamics of animal populations, how these patterns and processes change over time, and how to apply this information to better manage natural resources over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Accordingly, a major goal of his research program is to provide natural resource managers with information and tools that will enable them to become better stewards of healthy and sustainable ecosystems.
Current Major Projects
- Designing Sustainable Landscapes (DSL): A project of the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative to model landscape changes driven by processes such as climate change and urban growth, assess the ecological consequences of those changes to ecosystems and species, and design land acquisition, management and restoration strategies to achieve the goal of biodiversity conservation
- Spatial Pattern Analysis Software for Quantifying Landscape Patterns (FRAGSTATS)
- Rocky Mountain Landscape Simulator (RMLANDS): Quantifying Dynamics in Landscape Structure and Wildlife Habitat Under Alternative Disturbance Scenarios; applications associated with public lands management in the Southwest and California
- Conservation Assessment and Prioritization System (CAPS): A software system for evaluating ecological integrity and prioritizing sites for protection, management and/or restoration
- Ecology and conservation of eastern spadefoot toads on Cape Cod National Seashore
- Development of resistance surfaces for modeling connectivity for the design of conservation corridors
- Ecology and conservation of eastern indigo snakes in south-central Florida: individual-based spatially explicit population modeling
- Potential impacts of wind energy development on marine organisms in the Gulf of Maine: spatially-explicit modeling of species distribution and abundance
- Potential impacts of wind energy development on bald eagles in Maine: individual-based spatially explicit population modeling
- ECO 621 Landscape Ecology
- ECO 602/634 Analysis of Environmental Data
- ECO 632 Applied Multivariate Statistics for Ecological Data
Selected Recent Publications
Publications – Books
Leitão AB, J Miller, J Ahern, and K McGarigal. 2006. Measuring Landscapes: A Planners Handbook. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
McGarigal, K., S. Cushman, and S. G. Stafford. 2000. Multivariate Statistics for Wildlife and Ecology Research. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Publications–Refereed (2001 to present)
Allyn, AJ, A McKnight, K McGarigal, CR Griffin, KJ Kuletz, D Cushing, and DB Irons. 2015. Evaluating a paired logistic regression model of presence-only data to map important habitat areas of the rare Kittlitz’s Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris). Marine Ornithology 43:65-76.
Whiteley, AR, K McGarigal, and MK Schwartz. 2014. Pronounced differences in genetic structure despite overall similarities in ecology and life history for two Ambystoma salamanders in the same landscape. Conservation Genetics 15:573-591.
Timm, BC, and K McGarigal. 2014. Fowler’s Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri) activity patterns on a roadway at Cape Cod National Seashore, USA. J. of Herpetology 48:111-116.
Timm, BC, K McGarigal, and RP Cook. 2014. Upland movement patterns and habitat selection of adult eastern spadefoots (Scaphiopus holbrookii) at Cape Cod National Seashore. J. of Herpetology 48:84-97.
Timm, BC, and K McGarigal. (Accepted). Scaphiopus holbrooki (eastern spadefoot). Possible transmitter expulsion. Herpetological Review.
Zeller, KA, K McGarigal, P Beier, SA Cushman, TW Vickers, and WM Boyce. 2014. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: pumas as a case study. Landscape Ecology 29:541-557.
Elizabeth Homa, Casey Brown, Kevin McGarigal, Brad Compton, and Scott Jackson. 2013. Estimating hydrologic alteration from basin characteristics in Massachusetts. Journal of Hydrology 503:196-208.
Shirley, SM, Z Yang, RA Hutchinson, JDAlexander, K McGarigal, and MG Betts. 2013. Species distribution modeling for the people: Unclassified landsat TM predicts bird occurrence at fine resolutions. Diversity and Distributions 1-12.
Haire, SL, K McGarigal, and C Miller. 2013. Wilderness shapes contemporary fire size distributions across landscapes of the western United States. Ecosphere 4:art15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES12-00257.1
Timm, BC, and K McGarigal. 2013. A preliminary assessment of the ground-dwelling arthropod community composition in six common dune cover types at Cape Cod National Seashore. Northeastern Naturalist 20:529-539.
Allyn, AJ, A McKnight, K McGarigal, CR Griffin, KJ Kuletz, and DB Irons. 2012. Relationships among Kittlitz’s Murrelet habitat use, temperature-depth profiles, and landscape features in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 466:233-247.
Timm, B, and K McGarigal. 2012. Fine-Scale Remotely-Sensed Cover Mapping of Coastal Dune and Salt Marsh Ecosystems at Cape Cod National Seashore Using Random Forests. Remote Sensing of Environment 127:106-117.
Zeller, KA, K McGarigal, and AR Whiteley. 2012. Estimating landscape resistance to movement: a review. Landscape Ecology 27:777-797.
O’Connor MP, FJ Juanes, K McGarigal, and S Gaurin. 2012. Findings on American shad and stripped bass in the Hudson River Estuary: a fish community study on the longterm effects of local hydrology and regional climate change. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 4:327–336.
O’Connor MP, F Juanes, K McGarigal, and J Caris. 2012. Describing juvenile American shad and striped bass habitat use in the Hudson River estuary using species distribution models. Ecological Engineering 48:101-108.
Seavey J, B Glimer, and K McGarigal. 2011. Effect of sea-level rise on piping plover (Charadrius melodus) breeding habitat. Biological Conservation 144:393-401.
Timm BC, K McGarigal, and RP Cook. 2010. Scaphiopus H. Holbrookii (eastern spadefoot) predation. Herpetological Review 41:207.
Haire SL, and K McGarigal. 2010. Effects of landscape patterns of fire severity on regenerating ponderosa pine forests (Pinus ponderosa) in New Mexico and Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology 25:1055–1069.
Timm BC, and K McGarigal. 2010. The Diets of Subadult Fowler’s Toads (Bufo fowleri) and Eastern Spadefoots (Scaphiopus h. holbrookii) at Cape Cod National Seashore, USA. Herpetological Review 41:154-156.
Betts MG, JC Hagar, JW Rivers, JD Alexander, K McGarigal, and BC McComb. 2010. Thresholds in forest bird occurrence as a function of the amount of early-seral broadleaf forest at landscape scales. Ecological Applications 20:2116-2130.
Cushman SA, KS McKelvey, BR Noon, and K McGarigal. 2010. Use of abundance of one species as a surrogate for abundance of others. Conservation Biology 24: 830-840.
Massey BH, CR Griffin, and K McGarigal. 2009. Habitat Use by Foraging Northern Harriers on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121: 765-769.
Haire SL, and K McGarigal. 2009. Spatial patterns of fire severity in southwestern forests, USA: the role of climate, fire size, and landscape gradients. Fire Ecology 5:86-103.
Sekar I, K McGarigal, JT Finn, R Ryan, and TO Randhir. 2009. Water quality response to economic development: quantifying environmental Kuznets curve. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 64:73-88.
McGarigal K, S Tagil, and SA Cushman. 2009. Surface metrics: An alternative to patch metrics for the quantification of landscape structure. Landscape Ecology 24:433–450.
Gamble LR, K McGarigal, DB Sigourney, and BC Timm. 2009. Survival and breeding frequency in Marbled Salamanders (Ambystoma opacum): implications for spatio-temporal population dynamics. Copeia 2:394–407.
Haire SL, and K McGarigal. 2008. Inhabitants of landscape scars: plant species diversity and succession after high-severity fire at two southwestern sites. The Southwestern Naturalist 53(2):146–161.
Massey B, R Bowen, C Griffin, and K McGarigal. 2008. A classification-tree analysis of nesting habitat in an island population of northern harriers. The Condor 110(1):177–183.
Cushman SA, KS McKelvey, C Flather, and K McGarigal. 2008a. Do forest community types provide a sufficient basis to evaluate biological diversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(1):13-17.
Cushman SA, K McGarigal, and M Neel. 2008b. Parsimony in landscape metrics: strength, universality, and consistency. Ecological Indicators 8:691-703.
Gamble LR, S Ravela, and K McGarigal. 2008. Multi-scale features for identifying individuals in large biological databases: an application of pattern recognition technology to the marbled salamander Ambystoma opacum. Journal of Applied Ecology 45:170–180.
Gamble LR, K McGarigal, and BW Compton. 2007. Fidelity and dispersal in the pond-breeding amphibian, Ambystoma opacum: Implications for spatio-temporal population dynamics and conservation. Biological Conservation 139:247-257.
Timm BC, K McGarigal, and BW Compton. 2007a. Timing of large movement events of pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts, USA. Biological Conservation 136:442-454.
Timm BC, K McGarigal, and LR Gamble. 2007b. Emigration timing of juvenile pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts. Journal of Herpetology 41(2):243-250.
Timm BC, K McGarigal, and CL Jenkins. 2007c. Emigration orientation of juvenile pond-breeding amphibians in western Massachusetts. Copeia 3:685–698.
Compton BW, K McGarigal, SA Cushman, and LR Gamble. 2007. A resistant-kernel model of connectivity for amphibians that breed in vernal pools. Conservation Biology 21(3):788-799.
Jenkins CL, K McGarigal, and BC Timm. 2006. Orientation of movements and habitat selection in a spatially-structured population of marbled salamanders (Ambystoma opacum). J. of Herpetology 40(2):240-248.
Gamble LR, K McGarigal, CL Jenkins, and BC Timm. 2006. Limitations of regulated “buffer zones” for the conservation of marbled salamanders. Wetlands 26(2):298-306.
Neel MC, K McGarigal, and SA Cushman. 2004. Behavior of class-level landscape metrics across gradients of class aggregation and area. Landscape Ecology 19:435-455.
Cushman SA, and K McGarigal. 2004a. Hierarchical analysis of forest bird species-environment relationships in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecological Applications 14:1090-1105.
Cushman SA, and K McGarigal. 2004b. Patterns in the species-environment relationship depend on both scale and choice of response variables. Oikos 105:117-124.
Cushman SA, and K McGarigal. 2003. Landscape-level patterns of avian diversity in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecological Monographs 73:259-281.
Jenkins CL, K McGarigal, and LR Gamble. 2003. Comparative effectiveness of two trapping techniques for surveying the abundance and diversity of forest floor vertebrates along drift fence arrays. Herpetological Review 34:39-42.
Thompson CM, and K McGarigal. 2002. The influence of research scale on bald eagle habitat selection along the lower Hudson River, New York. Landscape Ecology 17:569-586.
Cushman SA, and K McGarigal. 2002. Hierarchical, multi-scale decomposition of species-environment relationships. Landscape Ecology 17:637-646.
McGarigal K, and S Cushman. 2002. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation. Ecological Applications 12(2):335-345.
Jenkins CL, K McGarigal, and LR Gamble. 2002. A comparison of aquatic surveying techniques used to sample Ambystoma opacum Larvae. Herpetological Review 33:33-35.
McGarigal K, W Romme, M Crist, and E Roworth. 2001. Cumulative effects of Logging and road-building on landscape structure in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Landscape Ecology 16:327-349.
Publications–Book Chapters (2001 to present)
McGarigal K. 2013. Landscape pattern metrics. Pages 1441-1451 in AH El-Shaarawi and W Piegorsch (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, England.
Cushman SA, K McGarigal, K McKelvey, C Reagan, T Demeo, and C Vojta. 2013. Landscape analysis of wildlife habitat. Chapter 6 in MM Rowland and CD Vojta (tech. eds.), A technical guide for monitoring wildlife habitat. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-89. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 400 p.
Wiens JA, H Safford, K McGarigal, WH Romme, and M Manning. 2012. What is the scope of “history” in historical ecology? Issues of scale in management and conservation. Chapter 6 in J Wiens, C Regan, G Hayward, and H Safford (eds), Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management. Wiley.
McGarigal K, and WH Romme. 2012. Modeling historical range of variation at a range of scales: example application. Chapter 9 in J Wiens, C Regan, G Hayward, and H Safford (eds), Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management. Wiley.
Zuckerberg B, and K McGarigal. 2012. Widening the circle of investigation: The interface between citizen science and landscape ecology. Chapter 7 in JL Dickinson and R Bonney (eds.), Citizen Science: Public Collaboration in Environmental Research. Cornell University Press.
Cushman SA, J Littell, and K McGarigal. 2010. The problem of ecological scaling in spatially complex, nonequilibrium ecological systems. Chapter 3 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. Springer.
Cushman SA, TN Wasserman, and K McGarigal. 2011. Landscape fire and wildlife habitat. Chapter 5 in D McKenzie and LK Kellog (eds.), The Landscape Ecology of Fire. Springer.
Cushman SA, J Evans, and K McGarigal. 2010. Landscape ecology: past, present and future. Chapter 4 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. Springer.
Cushman SA, K McGarigal, K Gutzweiler, and JS Evans. 2010. The gradient paradigm: a conceptual and analytical framework for landscape ecology. Chapter 5 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation.
Cushman SA, BW Compton, and K McGarigal. 2010. Habitat fragmentation effects depend on complex interactions between population size and dispersal ability: modeling influences of roads, agriculture and residential development across a range of life-history characteristics. Chapter 20 in SA Cushman and F Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics, and Wildlife Conservation. Springer. 18 pgs.
Cushman SA and K McGarigal. 2008. Landscape metrics and scales of resolution. Pages 31-50 in KV Gadow (ed.), Adaptive Design of Forested Landscapes: The Multiple Path Principle. Springer, New York. 286 pp.
Cushman SA and K McGarigal. 2006. Multivariate landscape trajectory analysis: An example using simulation modeling of American marten habitat change under four timber harvest scenarios. Pages 119-140 in JA Bissonnette and I Storch (eds.), Temporal Dimensions of Landscape Ecology: Wildlife Responses to Variable Resources. Springer, New York.
McGarigal K, and SA Cushman. 2005. The gradient concept of landscape structure. Pages 112-119 in J Wiens and M Moss (eds.), Issues and Perspectives in Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
McGarigal K. 2002. Landscape pattern metrics. Volume 2, pp 1135-1142 in AH El-Shaarawi and WW Piegorsch (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England.
Page updated: July 28, 2015